PANDOC

Section: User Commands (1)
Updated: January 19, 2013
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NAME

pandoc - general markup converter  

SYNOPSIS

pandoc [options] [input-file]...  

DESCRIPTION

Pandoc is a Haskell library for converting from one markup format to another, and a command-line tool that uses this library. It can read markdown and (subsets of) Textile, reStructuredText, HTML, LaTeX, MediaWiki markup, Haddock markup, OPML, Emacs Org-mode and DocBook; and it can write plain text, markdown, reStructuredText, XHTML, HTML 5, LaTeX (including beamer slide shows), ConTeXt, RTF, OPML, DocBook, OpenDocument, ODT, Word docx, GNU Texinfo, MediaWiki markup, EPUB (v2 or v3), FictionBook2, Textile, groff man pages, Emacs Org-Mode, AsciiDoc, InDesign ICML, and Slidy, Slideous, DZSlides, reveal.js or S5 HTML slide shows. It can also produce PDF output on systems where LaTeX is installed.

Pandoc's enhanced version of markdown includes syntax for footnotes, tables, flexible ordered lists, definition lists, fenced code blocks, superscript, subscript, strikeout, title blocks, automatic tables of contents, embedded LaTeX math, citations, and markdown inside HTML block elements. (These enhancements, described below under Pandoc's markdown, can be disabled using the markdown_strict input or output format.)

In contrast to most existing tools for converting markdown to HTML, which use regex substitutions, Pandoc has a modular design: it consists of a set of readers, which parse text in a given format and produce a native representation of the document, and a set of writers, which convert this native representation into a target format. Thus, adding an input or output format requires only adding a reader or writer.  

Using pandoc

If no input-file is specified, input is read from stdin. Otherwise, the input-files are concatenated (with a blank line between each) and used as input. Output goes to stdout by default (though output to stdout is disabled for the odt, docx, epub, and epub3 output formats). For output to a file, use the -o option:


pandoc -o output.html input.txt

Instead of a file, an absolute URI may be given. In this case pandoc will fetch the content using HTTP:


pandoc -f html -t markdown http://www.fsf.org

If multiple input files are given, pandoc will concatenate them all (with blank lines between them) before parsing.

The format of the input and output can be specified explicitly using command-line options. The input format can be specified using the -r/--read or -f/--from options, the output format using the -w/--write or -t/--to options. Thus, to convert hello.txt from markdown to LaTeX, you could type:


pandoc -f markdown -t latex hello.txt

To convert hello.html from html to markdown:


pandoc -f html -t markdown hello.html

Supported output formats are listed below under the -t/--to option. Supported input formats are listed below under the -f/--from option. Note that the rst, textile, latex, and html readers are not complete; there are some constructs that they do not parse.

If the input or output format is not specified explicitly, pandoc will attempt to guess it from the extensions of the input and output filenames. Thus, for example,


pandoc -o hello.tex hello.txt

will convert hello.txt from markdown to LaTeX. If no output file is specified (so that output goes to stdout), or if the output file's extension is unknown, the output format will default to HTML. If no input file is specified (so that input comes from stdin), or if the input files' extensions are unknown, the input format will be assumed to be markdown unless explicitly specified.

Pandoc uses the UTF-8 character encoding for both input and output. If your local character encoding is not UTF-8, you should pipe input and output through iconv:


iconv -t utf-8 input.txt | pandoc | iconv -f utf-8

 

Creating a PDF

Earlier versions of pandoc came with a program, markdown2pdf, that used pandoc and pdflatex to produce a PDF. This is no longer needed, since pandoc can now produce pdf output itself. To produce a PDF, simply specify an output file with a .pdf extension. Pandoc will create a latex file and use pdflatex (or another engine, see --latex-engine) to convert it to PDF:


pandoc test.txt -o test.pdf

Production of a PDF requires that a LaTeX engine be installed (see --latex-engine, below), and assumes that the following LaTeX packages are available: amssymb, amsmath, ifxetex, ifluatex, listings (if the --listings option is used), fancyvrb, longtable, booktabs, url, graphicx, hyperref, ulem, babel (if the lang variable is set), fontspec (if xelatex or lualatex is used as the LaTeX engine), xltxtra and xunicode (if xelatex is used).  

hsmarkdown

A user who wants a drop-in replacement for Markdown.pl may create a symbolic link to the pandoc executable called hsmarkdown. When invoked under the name hsmarkdown, pandoc will behave as if invoked with -f markdown_strict --email-obfuscation=references, and all command-line options will be treated as regular arguments. However, this approach does not work under Cygwin, due to problems with its simulation of symbolic links.  

OPTIONS

 

General options

-f FORMAT, -r FORMAT, --from=FORMAT, --read=FORMAT
Specify input format. FORMAT can be native (native Haskell), json (JSON version of native AST), markdown (pandoc's extended markdown), markdown_strict (original unextended markdown), markdown_phpextra (PHP Markdown Extra extended markdown), markdown_github (github extended markdown), textile (Textile), rst (reStructuredText), html (HTML), docbook (DocBook), opml (OPML), org (Emacs Org-mode), mediawiki (MediaWiki markup), haddock (Haddock markup), or latex (LaTeX). If +lhs is appended to markdown, rst, latex, or html, the input will be treated as literate Haskell source: see Literate Haskell support, below. Markdown syntax extensions can be individually enabled or disabled by appending +EXTENSION or -EXTENSION to the format name. So, for example, markdown_strict+footnotes+definition_lists is strict markdown with footnotes and definition lists enabled, and markdown-pipe_tables+hard_line_breaks is pandoc's markdown without pipe tables and with hard line breaks. See Pandoc's markdown, below, for a list of extensions and their names.
-t FORMAT, -w FORMAT, --to=FORMAT, --write=FORMAT
Specify output format. FORMAT can be native (native Haskell), json (JSON version of native AST), plain (plain text), markdown (pandoc's extended markdown), markdown_strict (original unextended markdown), markdown_phpextra (PHP Markdown extra extended markdown), markdown_github (github extended markdown), rst (reStructuredText), html (XHTML 1), html5 (HTML 5), latex (LaTeX), beamer (LaTeX beamer slide show), context (ConTeXt), man (groff man), mediawiki (MediaWiki markup), textile (Textile), org (Emacs Org-Mode), texinfo (GNU Texinfo), opml (OPML), docbook (DocBook), opendocument (OpenDocument), odt (OpenOffice text document), docx (Word docx), rtf (rich text format), epub (EPUB v2 book), epub3 (EPUB v3), fb2 (FictionBook2 e-book), asciidoc (AsciiDoc), icml (InDesign ICML), slidy (Slidy HTML and javascript slide show), slideous (Slideous HTML and javascript slide show), dzslides (DZSlides HTML5 + javascript slide show), revealjs (reveal.js HTML5 + javascript slide show), s5 (S5 HTML and javascript slide show), or the path of a custom lua writer (see Custom writers, below). Note that odt, epub, and epub3 output will not be directed to stdout; an output filename must be specified using the -o/--output option. If +lhs is appended to markdown, rst, latex, beamer, html, or html5, the output will be rendered as literate Haskell source: see Literate Haskell support, below. Markdown syntax extensions can be individually enabled or disabled by appending +EXTENSION or -EXTENSION to the format name, as described above under -f.
-o FILE, --output=FILE
Write output to FILE instead of stdout. If FILE is -, output will go to stdout. (Exception: if the output format is odt, docx, epub, or epub3, output to stdout is disabled.)
--data-dir=DIRECTORY
Specify the user data directory to search for pandoc data files. If this option is not specified, the default user data directory will be used. This is

$HOME/.pandoc

in unix,


C:\Documents And Settings\USERNAME\Application Data\pandoc

in Windows XP, and


C:\Users\USERNAME\AppData\Roaming\pandoc

in Windows 7. (You can find the default user data directory on your system by looking at the output of pandoc --version.) A reference.odt, reference.docx, default.csl, epub.css, templates, slidy, slideous, or s5 directory placed in this directory will override pandoc's normal defaults.

-v, --version
Print version.
-h, --help
Show usage message.
 

Reader options

-R, --parse-raw
Parse untranslatable HTML codes and LaTeX environments as raw HTML or LaTeX, instead of ignoring them. Affects only HTML and LaTeX input. Raw HTML can be printed in markdown, reStructuredText, HTML, Slidy, Slideous, DZSlides, reveal.js, and S5 output; raw LaTeX can be printed in markdown, reStructuredText, LaTeX, and ConTeXt output. The default is for the readers to omit untranslatable HTML codes and LaTeX environments. (The LaTeX reader does pass through untranslatable LaTeX commands, even if -R is not specified.)
-S, --smart
Produce typographically correct output, converting straight quotes to curly quotes, --- to em-dashes, -- to en-dashes, and ... to ellipses. Nonbreaking spaces are inserted after certain abbreviations, such as "Mr." (Note: This option is significant only when the input format is markdown, markdown_strict, or textile. It is selected automatically when the input format is textile or the output format is latex or context, unless --no-tex-ligatures is used.)
--old-dashes
Selects the pandoc <= 1.8.2.1 behavior for parsing smart dashes: - before a numeral is an en-dash, and -- is an em-dash. This option is selected automatically for textile input.
--base-header-level=NUMBER
Specify the base level for headers (defaults to 1).
--indented-code-classes=CLASSES
Specify classes to use for indented code blocks--for example, perl,numberLines or haskell. Multiple classes may be separated by spaces or commas.
--default-image-extension=EXTENSION
Specify a default extension to use when image paths/URLs have no extension. This allows you to use the same source for formats that require different kinds of images. Currently this option only affects the markdown and LaTeX readers.
--filter=EXECUTABLE
Specify an executable to be used as a filter transforming the Pandoc AST after the input is parsed and before the output is written. The executable should read JSON from stdin and write JSON to stdout. The JSON must be formatted like pandoc's own JSON input and output. The name of the output format will be passed to the filter as the first argument. Hence,

pandoc --filter ./caps.py -t latex

is equivalent to


pandoc -t json | ./caps.py latex | pandoc -f json -t latex

The latter form may be useful for debugging filters.

Filters may be written in any language. Text.Pandoc.JSON exports toJSONFilter to facilitate writing filters in Haskell. Those who would prefer to write filters in python can use the module pandocfilters, installable from PyPI. See http://github.com/jgm/pandocfilters for the module and several examples. Note that the EXECUTABLE will be sought in the user's PATH, and not in the working directory, if no directory is provided. If you want to run a script in the working directory, preface the filename with ./.

-M KEY[=VAL], --metadata=KEY[:VAL]
Set the metadata field KEY to the value VAL. A value specified on the command line overrides a value specified in the document. Values will be parsed as YAML boolean or string values. If no value is specified, the value will be treated as Boolean true. Like --variable, --metadata causes template variables to be set. But unlike --variable, --metadata affects the metadata of the underlying document (which is accessible from filters and may be printed in some output formats).
--normalize
Normalize the document after reading: merge adjacent Str or Emph elements, for example, and remove repeated Spaces.
-p, --preserve-tabs
Preserve tabs instead of converting them to spaces (the default). Note that this will only affect tabs in literal code spans and code blocks; tabs in regular text will be treated as spaces.
--tab-stop=NUMBER
Specify the number of spaces per tab (default is 4).
 

General writer options

-s, --standalone
Produce output with an appropriate header and footer (e.g. a standalone HTML, LaTeX, or RTF file, not a fragment). This option is set automatically for pdf, epub, epub3, fb2, docx, and odt output.
--template=FILE
Use FILE as a custom template for the generated document. Implies --standalone. See Templates below for a description of template syntax. If no extension is specified, an extension corresponding to the writer will be added, so that --template=special looks for special.html for HTML output. If the template is not found, pandoc will search for it in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If this option is not used, a default template appropriate for the output format will be used (see -D/--print-default-template).
-V KEY[=VAL], --variable=KEY[:VAL]
Set the template variable KEY to the value VAL when rendering the document in standalone mode. This is generally only useful when the --template option is used to specify a custom template, since pandoc automatically sets the variables used in the default templates. If no VAL is specified, the key will be given the value true.
-D FORMAT, --print-default-template=FORMAT
Print the default template for an output FORMAT. (See -t for a list of possible FORMATs.)
--print-default-data-file=FILE
Print a default data file.
--no-wrap
Disable text wrapping in output. By default, text is wrapped appropriately for the output format.
--columns=NUMBER
Specify length of lines in characters (for text wrapping).
--toc, --table-of-contents
Include an automatically generated table of contents (or, in the case of latex, context, and rst, an instruction to create one) in the output document. This option has no effect on man, docbook, slidy, slideous, s5, docx, or odt output.
--toc-depth=NUMBER
Specify the number of section levels to include in the table of contents. The default is 3 (which means that level 1, 2, and 3 headers will be listed in the contents).
--no-highlight
Disables syntax highlighting for code blocks and inlines, even when a language attribute is given.
--highlight-style=STYLE
Specifies the coloring style to be used in highlighted source code. Options are pygments (the default), kate, monochrome, espresso, zenburn, haddock, and tango.
-H FILE, --include-in-header=FILE
Include contents of FILE, verbatim, at the end of the header. This can be used, for example, to include special CSS or javascript in HTML documents. This option can be used repeatedly to include multiple files in the header. They will be included in the order specified. Implies --standalone.
-B FILE, --include-before-body=FILE
Include contents of FILE, verbatim, at the beginning of the document body (e.g. after the <body> tag in HTML, or the \begin{document} command in LaTeX). This can be used to include navigation bars or banners in HTML documents. This option can be used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the order specified. Implies --standalone.
-A FILE, --include-after-body=FILE
Include contents of FILE, verbatim, at the end of the document body (before the </body> tag in HTML, or the \end{document} command in LaTeX). This option can be be used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the order specified. Implies --standalone.
 

Options affecting specific writers

--self-contained
Produce a standalone HTML file with no external dependencies, using data: URIs to incorporate the contents of linked scripts, stylesheets, images, and videos. The resulting file should be "self-contained," in the sense that it needs no external files and no net access to be displayed properly by a browser. This option works only with HTML output formats, including html, html5, html+lhs, html5+lhs, s5, slidy, slideous, dzslides, and revealjs. Scripts, images, and stylesheets at absolute URLs will be downloaded; those at relative URLs will be sought first relative to the working directory, then relative to the user data directory (see --data-dir), and finally relative to pandoc's default data directory. --self-contained does not work with --mathjax.
--offline
Deprecated synonym for --self-contained.
-5, --html5
Produce HTML5 instead of HTML4. This option has no effect for writers other than html. (Deprecated: Use the html5 output format instead.)
--html-q-tags
Use <q> tags for quotes in HTML.
--ascii
Use only ascii characters in output. Currently supported only for HTML output (which uses numerical entities instead of UTF-8 when this option is selected).
--reference-links
Use reference-style links, rather than inline links, in writing markdown or reStructuredText. By default inline links are used.
--atx-headers
Use ATX style headers in markdown and asciidoc output. The default is to use setext-style headers for levels 1-2, and then ATX headers.
--chapters
Treat top-level headers as chapters in LaTeX, ConTeXt, and DocBook output. When the LaTeX template uses the report, book, or memoir class, this option is implied. If beamer is the output format, top-level headers will become \part{..}.
-N, --number-sections
Number section headings in LaTeX, ConTeXt, HTML, or EPUB output. By default, sections are not numbered. Sections with class unnumbered will never be numbered, even if --number-sections is specified.
--number-offset=NUMBER[,NUMBER,...],
Offset for section headings in HTML output (ignored in other output formats). The first number is added to the section number for top-level headers, the second for second-level headers, and so on. So, for example, if you want the first top-level header in your document to be numbered "6", specify --number-offset=5. If your document starts with a level-2 header which you want to be numbered "1.5", specify --number-offset=1,4. Offsets are 0 by default. Implies --number-sections.
--no-tex-ligatures
Do not convert quotation marks, apostrophes, and dashes to the TeX ligatures when writing LaTeX or ConTeXt. Instead, just use literal unicode characters. This is needed for using advanced OpenType features with XeLaTeX and LuaLaTeX. Note: normally --smart is selected automatically for LaTeX and ConTeXt output, but it must be specified explicitly if --no-tex-ligatures is selected. If you use literal curly quotes, dashes, and ellipses in your source, then you may want to use --no-tex-ligatures without --smart.
--listings
Use listings package for LaTeX code blocks
-i, --incremental
Make list items in slide shows display incrementally (one by one). The default is for lists to be displayed all at once.
--slide-level=NUMBER
Specifies that headers with the specified level create slides (for beamer, s5, slidy, slideous, dzslides). Headers above this level in the hierarchy are used to divide the slide show into sections; headers below this level create subheads within a slide. The default is to set the slide level based on the contents of the document; see Structuring the slide show, below.
--section-divs
Wrap sections in <div> tags (or <section> tags in HTML5), and attach identifiers to the enclosing <div> (or <section>) rather than the header itself. See Section identifiers, below.
--email-obfuscation=none|javascript|references
Specify a method for obfuscating mailto: links in HTML documents. none leaves mailto: links as they are. javascript obfuscates them using javascript. references obfuscates them by printing their letters as decimal or hexadecimal character references.
--id-prefix=STRING
Specify a prefix to be added to all automatically generated identifiers in HTML and DocBook output, and to footnote numbers in markdown output. This is useful for preventing duplicate identifiers when generating fragments to be included in other pages.
-T STRING, --title-prefix=STRING
Specify STRING as a prefix at the beginning of the title that appears in the HTML header (but not in the title as it appears at the beginning of the HTML body). Implies --standalone.
-c URL, --css=URL
Link to a CSS style sheet. This option can be be used repeatedly to include multiple files. They will be included in the order specified.
--reference-odt=FILE
Use the specified file as a style reference in producing an ODT. For best results, the reference ODT should be a modified version of an ODT produced using pandoc. The contents of the reference ODT are ignored, but its stylesheets are used in the new ODT. If no reference ODT is specified on the command line, pandoc will look for a file reference.odt in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If this is not found either, sensible defaults will be used.
--reference-docx=FILE
Use the specified file as a style reference in producing a docx file. For best results, the reference docx should be a modified version of a docx file produced using pandoc. The contents of the reference docx are ignored, but its stylesheets are used in the new docx. If no reference docx is specified on the command line, pandoc will look for a file reference.docx in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If this is not found either, sensible defaults will be used. The following styles are used by pandoc: [paragraph] Normal, Compact, Title, Authors, Date, Heading 1, Heading 2, Heading 3, Heading 4, Heading 5, Block Quote, Definition Term, Definition, Body Text, Table Caption, Image Caption; [character] Default Paragraph Font, Body Text Char, Verbatim Char, Footnote Ref, Link.
--epub-stylesheet=FILE
Use the specified CSS file to style the EPUB. If no stylesheet is specified, pandoc will look for a file epub.css in the user data directory (see --data-dir). If it is not found there, sensible defaults will be used.
--epub-cover-image=FILE
Use the specified image as the EPUB cover. It is recommended that the image be less than 1000px in width and height. Note that in a markdown source document you can also specify cover-image in a YAML metadata block (see EPUB Metadata, below).
--epub-metadata=FILE
Look in the specified XML file for metadata for the EPUB. The file should contain a series of Dublin Core elements, as documented at http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/. For example:

 <dc:rights>Creative Commons</dc:rights>
 <dc:language>es-AR</dc:language>

By default, pandoc will include the following metadata elements: <dc:title> (from the document title), <dc:creator> (from the document authors), <dc:date> (from the document date, which should be in ISO 8601 format), <dc:language> (from the lang variable, or, if is not set, the locale), and <dc:identifier id="BookId"> (a randomly generated UUID). Any of these may be overridden by elements in the metadata file.

Note: if the source document is markdown, a YAML metadata block in the document can be used instead. See below under EPUB Metadata.

--epub-embed-font=FILE
Embed the specified font in the EPUB. This option can be repeated to embed multiple fonts. To use embedded fonts, you will need to add declarations like the following to your CSS (see --epub-stylesheet):

@font-face {
font-family: DejaVuSans;
font-style: normal;
font-weight: normal;
src:url("DejaVuSans-Regular.ttf");
}
@font-face {
font-family: DejaVuSans;
font-style: normal;
font-weight: bold;
src:url("DejaVuSans-Bold.ttf");
}
@font-face {
font-family: DejaVuSans;
font-style: italic;
font-weight: normal;
src:url("DejaVuSans-Oblique.ttf");
}
@font-face {
font-family: DejaVuSans;
font-style: italic;
font-weight: bold;
src:url("DejaVuSans-BoldOblique.ttf");
}
body { font-family: "DejaVuSans"; }

--epub-chapter-level=NUMBER
Specify the header level at which to split the EPUB into separate "chapter" files. The default is to split into chapters at level 1 headers. This option only affects the internal composition of the EPUB, not the way chapters and sections are displayed to users. Some readers may be slow if the chapter files are too large, so for large documents with few level 1 headers, one might want to use a chapter level of 2 or 3.
--latex-engine=pdflatex|lualatex|xelatex
Use the specified LaTeX engine when producing PDF output. The default is pdflatex. If the engine is not in your PATH, the full path of the engine may be specified here.
 

Citation rendering

--bibliography=FILE
Set the bibliography field in the document's metadata to FILE, overriding any value set in the metadata, and process citations using pandoc-citeproc. (This is equivalent to --metadata bibliography=FILE --filter pandoc-citeproc.)
--csl=FILE
Set the csl field in the document's metadata to FILE, overriding any value set in the metadata. (This is equivalent to --metadata csl=FILE.)
--citation-abbreviations=FILE
Set the citation-abbreviations field in the document's metadata to FILE, overriding any value set in the metadata. (This is equivalent to --metadata citation-abbreviations=FILE.)
--natbib
Use natbib for citations in LaTeX output. This option is not for use with the pandoc-citeproc filter or with PDF output. It is intended for use in producing a LaTeX file that can be processed with pdflatex and bibtex.
--biblatex
Use biblatex for citations in LaTeX output. This option is not for use with the pandoc-citeproc filter or with PDF output. It is intended for use in producing a LaTeX file that can be processed with pdflatex and bibtex or biber.
 

Math rendering in HTML

-m [URL], --latexmathml[=URL]
Use LaTeXMathML to display embedded TeX math in HTML output. The URL should point to the LaTeXMathML.js load script. If a URL is not provided, a link to LaTeXMathML.js at the Homepage of LaTeXMathML will be inserted.
--mathml[=URL]
Convert TeX math to MathML (in docbook as well as html and html5). In standalone html output, a small javascript (or a link to such a script if a URL is supplied) will be inserted that allows the MathML to be viewed on some browsers.
--jsmath[=URL]
Use jsMath to display embedded TeX math in HTML output. The URL should point to the jsMath load script (e.g. jsMath/easy/load.js); if provided, it will be linked to in the header of standalone HTML documents. If a URL is not provided, no link to the jsMath load script will be inserted; it is then up to the author to provide such a link in the HTML template.
--mathjax[=URL]
Use MathJax to display embedded TeX math in HTML output. The URL should point to the MathJax.js load script. If a URL is not provided, a link to the MathJax CDN will be inserted.
--gladtex
Enclose TeX math in <eq> tags in HTML output. These can then be processed by gladTeX to produce links to images of the typeset formulas.
--mimetex[=URL]
Render TeX math using the mimeTeX CGI script. If URL is not specified, it is assumed that the script is at /cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi.
--webtex[=URL]
Render TeX formulas using an external script that converts TeX formulas to images. The formula will be concatenated with the URL provided. If URL is not specified, the Google Chart API will be used.
 

Options for wrapper scripts

--dump-args
Print information about command-line arguments to stdout, then exit. This option is intended primarily for use in wrapper scripts. The first line of output contains the name of the output file specified with the -o option, or - (for stdout) if no output file was specified. The remaining lines contain the command-line arguments, one per line, in the order they appear. These do not include regular Pandoc options and their arguments, but do include any options appearing after a -- separator at the end of the line.
--ignore-args
Ignore command-line arguments (for use in wrapper scripts). Regular Pandoc options are not ignored. Thus, for example,

pandoc --ignore-args -o foo.html -s foo.txt -- -e latin1

is equivalent to


pandoc -o foo.html -s

 

TEMPLATES

When the -s/--standalone option is used, pandoc uses a template to add header and footer material that is needed for a self-standing document. To see the default template that is used, just type


pandoc -D FORMAT

where FORMAT is the name of the output format. A custom template can be specified using the --template option. You can also override the system default templates for a given output format FORMAT by putting a file templates/default.FORMAT in the user data directory (see --data-dir, above). Exceptions: For odt output, customize the default.opendocument template. For pdf output, customize the default.latex template.

Templates may contain variables. Variable names are sequences of alphanumerics, -, and _, starting with a letter. A variable name surrounded by $ signs will be replaced by its value. For example, the string $title$ in


<title>$title$</title>

will be replaced by the document title.

To write a literal $ in a template, use $$.

Some variables are set automatically by pandoc. These vary somewhat depending on the output format, but include metadata fields (such as title, author, and date) as well as the following:

header-includes
contents specified by -H/--include-in-header (may have multiple values)
toc
non-null value if --toc/--table-of-contents was specified
include-before
contents specified by -B/--include-before-body (may have multiple values)
include-after
contents specified by -A/--include-after-body (may have multiple values)
body
body of document
lang
language code for HTML or LaTeX documents
slidy-url
base URL for Slidy documents (defaults to http://www.w3.org/Talks/Tools/Slidy2)
slideous-url
base URL for Slideous documents (defaults to slideous)
s5-url
base URL for S5 documents (defaults to s5/default)
revealjs-url
base URL for reveal.js documents (defaults to reveal.js)
theme
reveal.js or LaTeX beamer theme
transition
reveal.js transition
fontsize
font size (10pt, 11pt, 12pt) for LaTeX documents
documentclass
document class for LaTeX documents
classoption
option for LaTeX documentclass, e.g. oneside; may be repeated for multiple options
geometry
options for LaTeX geometry class, e.g. margin=1in; may be repeated for multiple options
linestretch
adjusts line spacing (requires the setspace package)
fontfamily
font package to use for LaTeX documents (with pdflatex): TeXLive has bookman (Bookman), utopia or fourier (Utopia), fouriernc (New Century Schoolbook), times or txfonts (Times), mathpazo or pxfonts or mathpple (Palatino), libertine (Linux Libertine), arev (Arev Sans), and the default lmodern, among others.
mainfont, sansfont, monofont, mathfont
fonts for LaTeX documents (works only with xelatex and lualatex)
colortheme
colortheme for LaTeX beamer documents
fonttheme
fonttheme for LaTeX beamer documents
linkcolor
color for internal links in LaTeX documents (red, green, magenta, cyan, blue, black)
urlcolor
color for external links in LaTeX documents
citecolor
color for citation links in LaTeX documents
links-as-notes
causes links to be printed as footnotes in LaTeX documents
biblio-style
bibliography style in LaTeX, when used with --natbib
biblio-files
bibliography files to use in LaTeX, with --natbib or --biblatex
section
section number in man pages
header
header in man pages
footer
footer in man pages

Variables may be set at the command line using the -V/--variable option. Variables set in this way override metadata fields with the same name.

Templates may contain conditionals. The syntax is as follows:


$if(variable)$
X
$else$
Y
$endif$

This will include X in the template if variable has a non-null value; otherwise it will include Y. X and Y are placeholders for any valid template text, and may include interpolated variables or other conditionals. The $else$ section may be omitted.

When variables can have multiple values (for example, author in a multi-author document), you can use the $for$ keyword:


$for(author)$
<meta name="author" content="$author$" />
$endfor$

You can optionally specify a separator to be used between consecutive items:


$for(author)$$author$$sep$, $endfor$

A dot can be used to select a field of a variable that takes an object as its value. So, for example:


$author.name$ ($author.affiliation$)

If you use custom templates, you may need to revise them as pandoc changes. We recommend tracking the changes in the default templates, and modifying your custom templates accordingly. An easy way to do this is to fork the pandoc-templates repository (http://github.com/jgm/pandoc-templates) and merge in changes after each pandoc release.  

PRODUCING SLIDE SHOWS WITH PANDOC

You can use Pandoc to produce an HTML + javascript slide presentation that can be viewed via a web browser. There are five ways to do this, using S5, DZSlides, Slidy, Slideous, or reveal.js. You can also produce a PDF slide show using LaTeX beamer.

Here's the markdown source for a simple slide show, habits.txt:


% Habits
% John Doe
% March 22, 2005

# In the morning

## Getting up

- Turn off alarm
- Get out of bed

## Breakfast

- Eat eggs
- Drink coffee

# In the evening

## Dinner

- Eat spaghetti
- Drink wine

------------------

![picture of spaghetti](images/spaghetti.jpg)

## Going to sleep

- Get in bed
- Count sheep

To produce an HTML/javascript slide show, simply type


pandoc -t FORMAT -s habits.txt -o habits.html

where FORMAT is either s5, slidy, slideous, dzslides, or revealjs.

For Slidy, Slideous, reveal.js, and S5, the file produced by pandoc with the -s/--standalone option embeds a link to javascripts and CSS files, which are assumed to be available at the relative path s5/default (for S5), slideous (for Slideous), reveal.js (for reveal.js), or at the Slidy website at w3.org (for Slidy). (These paths can be changed by setting the slidy-url, slideous-url, revealjs-url, or s5-url variables; see --variable, above.) For DZSlides, the (relatively short) javascript and css are included in the file by default.

With all HTML slide formats, the --self-contained option can be used to produce a single file that contains all of the data necessary to display the slide show, including linked scripts, stylesheets, images, and videos.

To produce a PDF slide show using beamer, type


pandoc -t beamer habits.txt -o habits.pdf

Note that a reveal.js slide show can also be converted to a PDF by printing it to a file from the browser.  

Structuring the slide show

By default, the slide level is the highest header level in the hierarchy that is followed immediately by content, and not another header, somewhere in the document. In the example above, level 1 headers are always followed by level 2 headers, which are followed by content, so 2 is the slide level. This default can be overridden using the --slide-level option.

The document is carved up into slides according to the following rules:

A horizontal rule always starts a new slide.
A header at the slide level always starts a new slide.
Headers below the slide level in the hierarchy create headers within a slide.
Headers above the slide level in the hierarchy create "title slides," which just contain the section title and help to break the slide show into sections.
A title page is constructed automatically from the document's title block, if present. (In the case of beamer, this can be disabled by commenting out some lines in the default template.)

These rules are designed to support many different styles of slide show. If you don't care about structuring your slides into sections and subsections, you can just use level 1 headers for all each slide. (In that case, level 1 will be the slide level.) But you can also structure the slide show into sections, as in the example above.

Note: in reveal.js slide shows, if slide level is 2, a two-dimensional layout will be produced, with level 1 headers building horizontally and level 2 headers building vertically. It is not recommended that you use deeper nesting of section levels with reveal.js.  

Incremental lists

By default, these writers produces lists that display "all at once." If you want your lists to display incrementally (one item at a time), use the -i option. If you want a particular list to depart from the default (that is, to display incrementally without the -i option and all at once with the -i option), put it in a block quote:


> - Eat spaghetti
> - Drink wine

In this way incremental and nonincremental lists can be mixed in a single document.  

Inserting pauses

You can add "pauses" within a slide by including a paragraph containing three dots, separated by spaces:


# Slide with a pause

content before the pause

. . .

content after the pause

 

Styling the slides

You can change the style of HTML slides by putting customized CSS files in $DATADIR/s5/default (for S5), $DATADIR/slidy (for Slidy), or $DATADIR/slideous (for Slideous), where $DATADIR is the user data directory (see --data-dir, above). The originals may be found in pandoc's system data directory (generally $CABALDIR/pandoc-VERSION/s5/default). Pandoc will look there for any files it does not find in the user data directory.

For dzslides, the CSS is included in the HTML file itself, and may be modified there.

For reveal.js, themes can be used by setting the theme variable, for example:


-V theme=moon

Or you can specify a custom stylesheet using the --css option.

To style beamer slides, you can specify a beamer "theme" or "colortheme" using the -V option:


pandoc -t beamer habits.txt -V theme:Warsaw -o habits.pdf

Note that header attributes will turn into slide attributes (on a <div> or <section>) in HTML slide formats, allowing you to style individual slides. In Beamer, the only header attribute that affects slides is the allowframebreaks class, which sets the allowframebreaks option, causing multiple slides to be created if the content overfills the frame. This is recommended especially for bibliographies:


# References {.allowframebreaks}

 

Speaker notes

reveal.js has good support for speaker notes. You can add notes to your markdown document thus:


<div class="notes">
This is my note.

- It can contain markdown
- like this list

</div>

To show the notes window, press s while viewing the presentation. Notes are not yet supported for other slide formats, but the notes will not appear on the slides themselves.  

EPUB METADATA

EPUB metadata may be specified using the --epub-metadata option, but if the source document is markdown, it is better to use a YAML metadata block. Here is an example:


---
title:
- type: main
  text: My Book
- type: subtitle
  text: An investigation of metadata
creator:
- role: author
  text: John Smith
- role: editor
  text: Sarah Jones
identifier:
- scheme: DOI
  text: doi:10.234234.234/33
publisher:  My Press
rights:  (c) 2007 John Smith, CC BY-NC
...

The following fields are recognized:

identifier
Either a string value or an object with fields text and scheme. Valid values for scheme are ISBN-10, GTIN-13, UPC, ISMN-10, DOI, LCCN, GTIN-14, ISBN-13, Legal deposit number, URN, OCLC, ISMN-13, ISBN-A, JP, OLCC.
title
Either a string value, or an object with fields file-as and type, or a list of such objects. Valid values for type are main, subtitle, short, collection, edition, extended.
creator
Either a string value, or an object with fields role, file-as, and text, or a list of such objects. Valid values for role are marc relators, but pandoc will attempt to translate the human-readable versions (like "author" and "editor") to the appropriate marc relators.
contributor
Same format as creator.
date
A string value in YYYY-MM-DD format. (Only the year is necessary.) Pandoc will attempt to convert other common date formats.
language
A string value in RFC5646 format. Pandoc will default to the local language if nothing is specified.
subject
A string value or a list of such values.
description
A string value.
type
A string value.
format
A string value.
relation
A string value.
coverage
A string value.
rights
A string value.
cover-image
A string value (path to cover image).
stylesheet
A string value (path to CSS stylesheet).
 

LITERATE HASKELL SUPPORT

If you append +lhs (or +literate_haskell) to an appropriate input or output format (markdown, markdown_strict, rst, or latex for input or output; beamer, html or html5 for output only), pandoc will treat the document as literate Haskell source. This means that

In markdown input, "bird track" sections will be parsed as Haskell code rather than block quotations. Text between \begin{code} and \end{code} will also be treated as Haskell code.
In markdown output, code blocks with classes haskell and literate will be rendered using bird tracks, and block quotations will be indented one space, so they will not be treated as Haskell code. In addition, headers will be rendered setext-style (with underlines) rather than atx-style (with '#' characters). (This is because ghc treats '#' characters in column 1 as introducing line numbers.)
In restructured text input, "bird track" sections will be parsed as Haskell code.
In restructured text output, code blocks with class haskell will be rendered using bird tracks.
In LaTeX input, text in code environments will be parsed as Haskell code.
In LaTeX output, code blocks with class haskell will be rendered inside code environments.
In HTML output, code blocks with class haskell will be rendered with class literatehaskell and bird tracks.

Examples:


pandoc -f markdown+lhs -t html

reads literate Haskell source formatted with markdown conventions and writes ordinary HTML (without bird tracks).


pandoc -f markdown+lhs -t html+lhs

writes HTML with the Haskell code in bird tracks, so it can be copied and pasted as literate Haskell source.  

CUSTOM WRITERS

Pandoc can be extended with custom writers written in lua. (Pandoc includes a lua interpreter, so lua need not be installed separately.)

To use a custom writer, simply specify the path to the lua script in place of the output format. For example:


pandoc -t data/sample.lua

Creating a custom writer requires writing a lua function for each possible element in a pandoc document. To get a documented example which you can modify according to your needs, do


pandoc --print-default-data-file sample.lua

 

AUTHORS

© 2006-2013 John MacFarlane (jgm at berkeley dot edu). Released under the GPL, version 2 or greater. This software carries no warranty of any kind. (See COPYRIGHT for full copyright and warranty notices.) Other contributors include Recai Oktaş, Paulo Tanimoto, Peter Wang, Andrea Rossato, Eric Kow, infinity0x, Luke Plant, shreevatsa.public, Puneeth Chaganti, Paul Rivier, rodja.trappe, Bradley Kuhn, thsutton, Nathan Gass, Jonathan Daugherty, Jérémy Bobbio, Justin Bogner, qerub, Christopher Sawicki, Kelsey Hightower, Masayoshi Takahashi, Antoine Latter, Ralf Stephan, Eric Seidel, B. Scott Michel, Gavin Beatty, Sergey Astanin, Arlo O'Keeffe, Denis Laxalde, Brent Yorgey, David Lazar, Jamie F. Olson, Matthew Pickering, Albert Krewinkel, mb21, Jesse Rosenthal.  

PANDOC'S MARKDOWN

For a complete description of pandoc's extensions to standard markdown, see pandoc_markdown (5).  

SEE ALSO

pandoc_markdown (5).

The Pandoc source code and all documentation may be downloaded from <http://johnmacfarlane.net/pandoc/>.


 

Index

NAME
SYNOPSIS
DESCRIPTION
Using pandoc
Creating a PDF
hsmarkdown
OPTIONS
General options
Reader options
General writer options
Options affecting specific writers
Citation rendering
Math rendering in HTML
Options for wrapper scripts
TEMPLATES
PRODUCING SLIDE SHOWS WITH PANDOC
Structuring the slide show
Incremental lists
Inserting pauses
Styling the slides
Speaker notes
EPUB METADATA
LITERATE HASKELL SUPPORT
CUSTOM WRITERS
AUTHORS
PANDOC'S MARKDOWN
SEE ALSO

This document was created by man2html, using the manual pages.
Time: 14:37:55 GMT, July 23, 2017